Consortium for the Research and Study of Holocaust and the Law (CRSHL)

“Explore the Past, Understand the Present, Impact the Future”

The Consortium for the Research and Study of Holocaust and the Law (CRSHL) is housed in the Chicago-Kent College of Law’s Center for National Security and Human Rights Law. Its crucial mission is to serve as a forum in which practitioners, educators, and students can convene to enhance their understanding of the legal issues surrounding the Holocaust and its aftermath. Through that understanding, CRSHL hopes to develop lessons for today to create a more peaceful and just world.



John Geiringer

Senior Fellow

Michael Bazyler

Distinguished Fellows:

Amos N. Guiora

Mark Hull

Cathy Lesser Mansfield

Bruce Ogron

Steven H. Resnicoff

Richard Weisberg


CRSHL Publications

Why the Nuremberg Trials Still Matter, By John Geiringer and Kelley Szany. Op-ed in the Chicago Sun Times

War Crimes

List of Nazi war crime trials

The Nuremberg Laws and the Nuremberg Trials. Loyola Law School Law Review

Nazi Legal Regime

Legalizing Hate: The Significance of the Nuremberg Laws and The Post-War Nuremberg Trials

US Holocaust Memorial Museum Holocaust Encyclopedia: Law and Justice in the Third Reich

Dictatorship and the German Constitution: 1933-1937

Nazis in the Courtroom: Lessons From the Conduct of Lawyers and Judges under the Laws of the Third Reich and Vichy, France (Brooklyn Law Review)

Nuremberg Racial Laws

Introduction to the Nuremberg Laws

Holocaust Encyclopedia Nuremberg Race Laws

Jewish Virtual Library: The Reich Citizenship Law

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Holocaust Encyclopedia, Anti-Semetic Legislation 1933 – 1939

NYT article including translation and comments from General Patton: “Word for Word/The Nuremberg Laws; On Display in Los Angeles: Legal Foreshadowing of Nazi Horror”

International Military Tribunal

Harvard Law School Library: Nuremberg Trials Project

Yale Law School: The Nuremberg Trials Collection

Agreement for the prosecution and punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis. Signed at London, on 8 August 1945 (English)

Trial of The Major War Criminals Before The International Military Tribunal: Nuremberg 11 November 1945 – 1 October 1946

Nuremberg Military Tribunal

Final Report to The Secretary of the Army on the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials Under Control Council Law No.10

A Court Pure and Unsullied: Justice in the Justice Trial at Nuremberg. (University of Baltimore Law Review)

Justice After Nuremberg: a retrospective on the Nuremberg Military Tribunals (Youtube video) 2015

USHMM Holocaust Encyclopedia, background on the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg

Military Legal Resources (Federal Research Division) Nuremberg Trials

Nuremberg Military Tribunals: Indictments

Charter of the International Military Tribunal

International Military Tribunal (Nuremberg) Judgement of 1 October 1946

Testimony of Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz (1946)

Burton C. Einspruch Holocaust Lecture: Ben Ferencz
A YouTube interview with Mr. Ben Ferencz, the chief prosecutor for the United States Army at the Einsatzgruppen Trial in Nuremberg

What Evil Sounds Like: The complete recordings – all 775 hours – of the historic Nuremberg trials of Nazi leaders has been released online. (Wall Street Journal)

Eichmann Trial

The Strange and Curious History of the Law Used to Prosecute Adolf Eichmann. (Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review)

The Eichmann Trial: Some Legal Aspects

Jurisdictional Aspects of the Eichmann Case. (Minnesota Law Review)

YouTube Archive of Eichmann Trial Videos

German War Crimes Trials

Nazis Before the German Courts: The West German War Crimes Trials (International Lawyer, Fritz Weinschenk)

Lost Lessons: American Media Depictions of the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial 1963-1965 (University of Nebraska – Lincoln, Shayla Swift)

Crossroads At Ulm: Postwar West Germany and the 1958 Ulm Einsatzkommando Trial (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Patrik Tobin)

Nazi War Crimes Interagency Working Group

Locates, identifies, inventories, and recommends for declassification, currently classified U.S. Records relating to Nazi and Japanese Imperial Government war crimes. Once declassified, these records are released to the American public.

DOJ Office of Special Investigations

The Office of Special Investigations: Striving for Accountability in the Aftermath of the Holocaust. (Judy Feigin)

First Amendment, Holocaust Denial and the law

Skokie Revisited: Hate Group Speech and the First Amendment. (Donald A. Downs, Notre Dame Law Review)

Nazis in Skokie: Fighting Words of Heckler’s Veto. (Mark A. Rabinowitz, DePaul Law Review)

Book Review: Nazis in Skokie: Freedom, Community, and the First Amendment. By Donald Alexander Downs. (John H. Garvey, University of Minnesota Law School)

Holocaust Denial Laws and Other Legislation Criminalizing Promotion of Nazism. (Yad Vashem The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, Prof. Michael J. Bazyler)

Holocaust Denial Not Protected by Human-Rights Law, Court Says. (Bloomberg) based on European Court of Human Rights ruling against Udo Pastoers

On the Laws the Prohibit Holocaust Denial. (James Flynn, Brown Political Review)

The Law of Holocaust Denial in Europe: Towards a (qualified) EU-wide Criminal Probibition. (Laurent Pech, The Jean Monnet Center for International and Regional Economic Law & Justice)

The Laws Banning Holocaust Denial (Genocide Prevention Now) includes statutes criminalizing holocaust/genocide denial in several countries

Holocaust Denial and the First Amendment: The Quest for Truth in a Free Society. (Kenneth Lasson, University of Baltimore Law)

Legislating against Genocide Denial: Criminalizing Denial or Preventing Free Speech? (Roger W. Smith, University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy)

Undeniably Difficult: Extradition and Genocide Denial Laws. (Dylan Fotiadis, Washington University Global Studies Law Review)

Holocaust Denial and Academic Freedom (Stanley Fish, Valparaiso University Law Review)

Fake News and the First Amendment: Reconciling a Disconnect Between Theory and Doctrine. (Clay Calvert, University of Cincinnati Law Review)



Restitution Roulette: A Comparison of U.S. and European Approaches to Nazi-era Art Looting Claims. (Thomas R. Kline, International Foundation for Art Research Journal and Penn Law School)

Prisoners of War: Nazi-era Looted Art and the Need for Reform in the United States. (Jessica Schubert, Touro Law Review)

Guidelines and Best Practices for the Restitution and Compensation of Immovable (Real) Property Confiscated of Otherwise Wrongfully Seized by the Nazis, Fascists and Their Collaborators during the Holocaust (Shoah) Era between 1933-1945, Including the Period of World War II.

The Limits of Lex Americana: The Holocaust Restitution Litigation as a Cul-de-Sac of International Human-Rights Law

Reclaiming Their Past: A Survey of Jewish Efforts to Restitute European Property, (Stephen A. Denburg, Boston College Third World Law Journal)

Czech Republic

Restitution in the Czech Republic: Problems and Prague-Nosis


Restitution of Private Property in Postwar Poland: The Unfinished Legacy of the Second World War and Communism. (Michael Bazyler, Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review)

Toward a Fair and Just Comprehensive Property Restitution Law in Poland. (Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review)


An Analysis of the $1.25 Billion Settlement Between the Swiss Banks and Holocaust Survivors and Holocaust Victims’ Heirs. (Jeffery Craig Mickletz, Dickinson Journal of International Law)

The Price of Resolution: Switzerland and the Holocaust Victims. (Mereille Najm, Lehigh University)

The official website of the Swiss Banks Settlement: In re Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation

Final Report on the Swiss Banks Settlement Fund Distribution Process

Executive Summary of the Final Report on the Swiss Banks Settlement Distribution Process

Art Restitution

The Central Registry of Information on Looted Cultural Property 1933-1945

Commission for Looted Art in Europe

Grossman LLP’s Art Law Blog

The Art Newspaper’s “Nazi Loot” articles

The New York Times Art Restitution Articles

artnetnews Art and the Law articles

Deutshe Welle Article: Nazi-Looted art: Restitution process a ‘permanent task’

Institute of Art & Law (UK) Restitution tag

Center for Art Law, Nazi looted art tag

The Times of Israel Nazi-Looted Art tag

3 Cases That Explain Why Restituting Nazi-Looted Art Is So Difficult (2017)

A summary of WW2 art restitution cases decided in 2010

ABA News May 2019: German Heirs Allowed to Sue in U.S. for Nazi Art Seizures

Let’s Not Talk about Terezin: Restitution of Nazi Era Looted Art and the Tenuousness of Public International Law. (Bert Demarsin, Brooklyn Journal of International Law 2011)

Artdatabase, National Fund of the Republic of Austria for Victims of National Socialism

The Restitution of Holocaust Looted Art and Transitional Justice: The Perfect Storm or the Raft of the Medusa? (Therese O’Donnell, European Journal of International Law)

Cross-border restitution claims of art looted in armed conflicts and wars and alternatives to court litigation. (EU Parliament, Directorate-General for internal policies)

Nazi-Looted Art: Preserving a Legacy. (Alyssa R. Bickford, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law)

Art Restitution Alternative Media

What Once was Lost: Nazi Art Looting and Allied Restitution. The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (youtube)

Podcast: Nazi Looted Art: Legal Remedies and Limitations (2018)

John Demjanjuk Trial

State of Israel v. Ivan (John) Demjanjuk (1993)

Factual and Legal Details (1993)

The Demjanjuk Appeal (1993)

United States V. Demjanjuk (1981)

Denaturalization Case (1999)

Judgment Entry (2002)

Findings of Facts (2002)

Warrant of Removal/Deportation of John Demjanjuk (2008)

European Court of Human Rights (2019)

Auschwitz Trial

First Auschwitz Trial (1947)

Auschwitz Guards On Trial (Youtube)

Second Auschwitz Trial (1963)

Auschwitz Second Trial audios and transcription in German

German newsreel describing the Auschwitz Trial (With English subtitles)

Other Auschwitz Documents

Documents related to Auschwitz’ function as a death camp

The Doctors’ Trial (1947)

Full Transcript

Original Transcript photos

Verdicts and Sentences

Trial’s Videos (Youtube)

Abbaye Ardennes Trial (1945)

Trial of Kurt Meyer by the Canadian Military Court

Documents and Trial Transcripts

Preliminary Report Canadian Military Headquarters (1946)

Oral Interview with Kurt Meyer in German

MacLeans 1950 article about Kurt Meyer (with photos of the actual magazine)

The Almelo Trial (1945)

Defendants and Sentences

Full Law Report

The Alsace Trial (1946)

Defendants and Sentences

Full Law Report

Trial’s Video

Bergen-Belsen Trial (1945)

Trial Transcripts (day 1 to 54)

Trial’s Video (Youtube)

USA v. Pohl et. al (1947)

Defendants and Sentences

The Arraignment

The Indictment

Opening Statements of Prosecution and Defense

Order Constituting Tribunal II

Dachau Trial (1945-1947)

United States of America v. Martin Gottfried Weiss et al (1945)

Trial’s Transcript

Original Trial’s Review Transcript

Trial’s Video

Belzec Trial (1964)

Testimonies of Belzec SS-Men

Other Buchenwald Cases

Munich No 541 Buchenwald Trial Video

US v. Wilhelm Hinderer et al (1947)

US v. Josias Prince zu Waldeck et al (1947)

US v. Ernst Emil Jackobs (1947)

US v. Alfred Andreas Hoffman (1947)

US v. Josef Mueller (1947)

US v. Eirch Weyrauch (1947)

US v. Heinz Blume (1947)

US v. Victor Hantscharenko (1947)

US v. Heinrich Buuk (1947)

US v. Ignaz Seitz et al (1947)

US v. Alfons Kuniskowski (1947)

US v. Max Paul Emil Vogel (1947)

US v. Adam Ankenbrand (1947)

US v. Friedrich Demmer (1947)

US v. Johann Singer (1947)

US v. August Giese (1947)

US v. Paul Mueller (1947)

US v. Klaus Ferdinand Huels (1947)

US v. Heinrich Zwickl (1947)

US v. Otto Krause (1947)

US v. Ferdinand Lemke (1947)

US v. Werner Alfred Berger et al (1947)


Legal Sabotage: Ernst Fraenkel in Hitler’s Germany by Douglas Morris

Holocaust, Genocide, and the Law: A Quest for Justice in a Post Holocaust World by Michael Bazyler

Forgotten Trials of the Holocaust by Michael Bazyler & Frank Tuerkheimer

Holocaust Justice: The Battle for Restitution in America’s Courts by Michael Bazyler

Law and the Holocaust: U.S. Cases and Materials by Michael Bazyler & Robert Jarvis

Searching for Justice After the Holocaust: Fulfilling the Terezin Declaration and Immovable Property Restitution by Michael Bazyler, Kathryn Lee Boyd, Kristen Nelson, & Rajika Shah

Holocaust Restitution: Perspectives on the Litigation and its Legacy by Michael Bazyler & Roger Alford

The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials: A Personal Memoir by Telford Taylor

Benjamin Ferencz, Nuremberg Prosecutor and Peace Advocate by Tom Hofmann

Nazi Law: From Nuremberg to Nuremberg by John Michalczyk

Hitler’s American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law by James Whitman

The Nuremberg SS-Einsatzgruppen Trial, 1945-1958: Atrocity, Law, and History by Hilary Earl

Soviet Judgment at Nuremberg: A New History of the International Military Tribunal after World War II by Francine Hirsch

Nuremberg: Infamy on Trial by Joseph Persico

Justice at Nuremberg by Robert Conot

The Nuremberg Interviews: An American Psychiatrist’s Conversations With the Defendants and Witnesses by Leon Goldensohn

The Right Wrong Man: John Demjanjuk and the Last Great Nazi War Crimes Trial by Lawrence Douglas

The Nazis Next Door: How America Became a Safe Haven for Hitler’s Men by Eric Lichtblau

Useful Enemies: America’s Open Door Policy for Nazi War Criminals by Richard Rashke

The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law by Kevin Jon Heller

Hitler’s Generals on Trial: The Last War Crimes Tribunal at Nuremberg by Valerie Genevieve Hebert

The Scourge of the Swastika: A History of Nazi War Crimes During World War II by Edward Frederick Langley Russell

Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government Proposals for Redress by Raphael Lemkin, William Schabas, and Samantha Power

A Tragic Fate: Law and Ethics in the Battle Over Nazi-Looted Art by Nicholas O’Donnell

Imperfect Justice: Looted Assets, Slave Labor, and the Unfinished Business of World War II by Stuart Eizenstat

The Lady in Gold: The Extraordinary Tale of Gustav Klimt’s Masterpiece, Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer by Anne-Marie O’Connor

Denial: Holocaust History on Trial by Deborah Lipstadt

Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil by Hannah Arendt

The Eichmann Trial by Deborah Lipstadt

Fritz Bauer: The Jewish Prosecutor Who Brought Eichmann and Auschwitz to Trial by Ronen Steinke

Nazis in Skokie: Freedom, Community, and the First Amendment by Donald Downs

When the Nazis Came to Skokie by Philippa Strum

Other Resources

National Archives Collection of World War II War Crimes Records